Alphagalileo > Item Display
en-GBde-DEes-ESfr-FR

Face to face with the prehistoric inhabitants of El Argar


Our faces contain information about our family history and lifestyle. For example, certain facial traits can be passed down from parents to children for generations. Is it therefore possible that the physical resemblances among a group of individuals can provide clues about common blood ties?
This is one of the main objectives of a research being carried out by the group of Social and Mediterranean Archaeoecology (ASOME) at the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB) on the Argaric society, which expanded throughout the southeastern part of the Iberian Peninsula some 4,000 years ago and was one of the first urban societies in Western Europe. And the first step has been the work of Joana Bruno, researcher at ASOME-UAB, archaeologist and master in science illustration, who was in charge of the facial reconstruction of 38 individuals from El Argar, selected after a detailed osteological study of more than 250 skeletons recovered from well-preserved tombs of La Almoloya and La Bastida.
“Unlike the facial reconstructions of individuals from the past that are usually based on artistic inspiration, Bruno's approach applies verifiable scientific procedures”, says Cristina Rihuete Herrada, lecturer of the Department of Prehistory at the UAB and member of ASOME-UAB.
To carry out the study, Joana Bruno digitised the skulls using a high-resolution 3D laser scanner. On the 3D models of the skulls, she added muscle layers and other soft tissues to obtain the most probable appearance of the persons to whom the skulls belonged, in a “complex exercise using forensic techniques and data from the biological profile of these individuals”, says the archaeologist. “The application of the method starts by identifying the biological characteristics of the individual (sex and age) and collecting the measurements of each skull. Subsequently, regression equations are applied to these data to obtain the relative position of the facial features. Soft tissue depths are also added to specific areas of the skull, to determine what would be their most probable appearance”, she adds.
“So far we have the representations of the faces of 22 women, 16 men and two children, mostly all from the site of La Almoloya. This is the largest corpus of facial representations from a single prehistoric site that we have to date, and an unprecedented look at an important part of the community," says Cristina Rihuete.
Kinship Relationships in Prehistory
Joana Bruno’s study, which forms part of her PhD thesis, is integrated in a multidisciplinary research conducted by the ASOME-UAB group, and will be based on medical images and statistical techniques to investigate whether the Argaric facial form retains evidence of kinship and lifestyle. The results of the quantitative comparisons of facial and cranial traits will be contrasted with those of the forthcoming ancient DNA analyses from the same sample, to verify the reliability of the facial approach. “This could lead to a new way of approaching the reconstruction of kinship relationships in prehistoric societies, traditionally ‘invisible’ or hidden from archaeological research”, says Rafael Micó, also researcher at ASOME-UAB.
Based on the phenotypic knowledge of the preliminary DNA analysis and the archaeological data generated by the UAB fieldwork, Bruno is also working on the first artistic "portraits" of the Argarics. "The power of images for the public dissemination of archaeological knowledge is undeniable", says the researcher, for whom "scientific research and artistic work need not be separate fields".
Attached files
  • Display of 12 profiles of reconstructed faces. The individuals present very different profiles, in which the differences in the shape of the nose and chin stand out. The variety in the reconstructed facial features is a reflection of the observable differences in each skull. (Credit:ASOME-UAB)
  • -asgosacialeslrgar-2.jpg
  • Process of “filling” the face with soft tissue. (Credit: ASOME-UAB)
Regions: Europe, Spain
Keywords: Humanities, Archaeology

Testimonials

For well over a decade, in my capacity as a researcher, broadcaster, and producer, I have relied heavily on Alphagalileo.
All of my work trips have been planned around stories that I've found on this site.
The under embargo section allows us to plan ahead and the news releases enable us to find key experts.
Going through the tailored daily updates is the best way to start the day. It's such a critical service for me and many of my colleagues.
Koula Bouloukos, Senior manager, Editorial & Production Underknown
We have used AlphaGalileo since its foundation but frankly we need it more than ever now to ensure our research news is heard across Europe, Asia and North America. As one of the UK’s leading research universities we want to continue to work with other outstanding researchers in Europe. AlphaGalileo helps us to continue to bring our research story to them and the rest of the world.
Peter Dunn, Director of Press and Media Relations at the University of Warwick
AlphaGalileo has helped us more than double our reach at SciDev.Net. The service has enabled our journalists around the world to reach the mainstream media with articles about the impact of science on people in low- and middle-income countries, leading to big increases in the number of SciDev.Net articles that have been republished.
Ben Deighton, SciDevNet

We Work Closely With...


  • BBC
  • The Times
  • National Geographic
  • The University of Edinburgh
  • University of Cambridge
Copyright 2021 by DNN Corp Terms Of Use Privacy Statement