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Vitamin D and Calcium Disparities Found Among American Subpopulations

19 February 2014 Taylor & Francis

Many Americans do not meet recommended intakes of calcium and vitamin D, despite the important role these vital nutrients play in bone health during all stages of the lifecycle. Researchers set out to determine calcium and vitamin D intakes among specific subpopulations of Americans in order to identify those most in need of fortification/enrichment and supplementation. Their findings are now available in the Journal of the American College of Nutrition, the Official Publication of the American College of Nutrition and a publication from Routledge.

Calcium and Vitamin D Disparities Are Related to Gender, Age, Race, Household Income Level, and Weight Classification but Not Vegetarian Status in the United States: Analysis of the NHANES 2001–2008 Data Set
Taylor C. Wallace, PhD, FACN, Carroll Reider MS, RD & Victor L. Fulgoni III, PhD
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This study used data from the 2001 – 2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The combined sample totaled 227,528 participants who provided dietary intake data and personal information regarding gender, age, race, weight, household income level, dietary supplement use and vegetarian status. The National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate usual calcium and vitamin D intakes by source; these figures were compared to the established Dietary Reference Intakes for U.S. residents over the age of three. 

“Our results showed for the first time that low-income, overweight, and/or obese minority populations may be at a greater risk of calcium and vitamin D insufficiency,” said Dr. Taylor C. Wallace.  “The results show that large portions of the U.S. population do not obtain adequate calcium and vitamin D intakes from food alone.”  Children aged 4–8 years were more likely to obtain recommended dairy intakes compared with older children and adults of all ages. Food intakes of calcium and vitamin D decreased with age in adults. Adults who used supplemental calcium and vitamin D showed a lower prevalence of insufficiency. Calcium and vitamin D intakes from food and dietary supplements were not related to vegetarian status. Excessive intakes of calcium and vitamin D above the tolerable upper intake level (UL) were low among all studied populations and “over-nutrification” was not widely present across these analyses.

The results carry an important practical application as they may be used to help focus public health and awareness campaigns and messaging related to the significance of these two nutrients in maintaining optimal bone health. 

About Journal of the American College of Nutrition 
Published six times per year, the Journal of the American College of Nutrition continues to provide original and  innovative research in nutrition with useful application for researchers, physicians, and other health care professionals. 2012 Journal Citations Report® ranks the Journal 48th out of 76 journals in Nutrition & Dietetics with a 2012 Impact Factor of 1.738 and a 5-Year Impact Factor of 2.973. (© 2013 Thomson Reuters, Journal Citation Reports®). Follow the American College of Nutrition on Twitter - @AmColNutrition 
About the American College Of Nutrition®

The American College of Nutrition® has been dedicated since 1959 to enhancing clinical nutrition. The College strives to stimulate nutrition research and publication, elevate nutrition knowledge among researchers and clinicians, and provide practical guidance on clinical nutrition. Society Contact: Michael Stroka, JD, MBA, MS, CNS, Executive Director, American College of Nutrition, Tel: 727-446-6086 or Email:

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